Zebra Crossing: an easy-to-use digital safety checklist
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🦓 Zebra Crossing: an easy-to-use digital safety checklist

🎯 Start here!

🤔 Read this guide if you

  • Use the internet daily — for work, social media, and financial transactions.
  • Want to secure your digital safety and privacy proactively but aren’t in immediate danger. (If you are, reach out to someone in your community for a one-on-one consultation.)
  • Feel comfortable with technology — you feel confident about changing the settings on your computer or smartphone.

🗺 Where this guide is from

  • This guide draws from our work helping individuals and groups upgrade their digital safety practices, and from our experiences living and working in the United States, Canada, and Hong Kong.
  • Wherever possible, we chose apps and tools that are accessible and easy to use over ones that are technically sophisticated but difficult to use. Our decision is based on our observation that people become clumsier in stressful situations, so it is important to keep procedures as simple as possible.

🌱 How to use this guide

  • Start from Level 1 and work your way up! Recommendations are sorted by increasing levels of difficulty.
  • Level 1 is the quick essentials section. You should be able to work through it within 1 hour, and chances are, you're already familiar with many of the recommendations in there — but it never hurts to double check.
  • Level 2 digs deeper into your device/app settings and will help you fine tune your privacy online. This section will take 1-2 hours, depending on how many accounts and devices you frequently use.
  • At a minimum, do everything in Levels 1 and 2. It'll protect you from the most widely-used attacks while drastically decreasing the amount of personal information you're giving out for free.
  • Level 3 ties up loose ends in your digital safety practice, but it does requires more time and money to complete. Depending on the amount of digital housekeeping required, this part may take anywhere from 1-4 hours.
  • The scenarios shared after Level 3 are for higher-stakes situations. Scan them to see if any of them apply to you. (Because the stakes are higher, they assume you’ve done everything in Levels 1–3.)
  • This guide is a living document. Please feel free to submit a pull request or fork your version of this guide on GitHub.

🗣 Read this guide in other languages

Support this guide

🕒 Last updated

  • 29 June 2022

🧐 Useful terms to learn

🎯 Threat modeling

Threat modeling is a process that allows us to identify potential threats to safeguard against them. To build your threat model, ask yourself the following:

  • “What kind of danger am I in?” E.g. credit card hacks, corporate espionage, or online harassment/doxxing.
  • “What kind of assets am I protecting?” E.g. confidential documents, private photos, or personal messages.

Remember though, your threat model can change — either gradually over time or abruptly, say, when a new law is suddenly passed.

The weakest link is where your digital safety is most vulnerable. For example, if an account’s forgot password function sends a link to your email, attackers only need to access your email to gain access to the account.

🔡 Encryption levels

Encryption is the process of scrambling or encoding information to make it unreadable to passers-by and prevent unauthorized access. People often categorize encryption into these three types:

  1. No encryption: Any third party can intercept the data and read it as-is. Often called "plaintext."
  2. Standard encryption: Data is encrypted so that intercepting third parties cannot read it, but the platform being used to send the data (e.g. Facebook Messenger) can unscramble and read it. The platform may hand the unscrambled data to courts or government agencies if ordered to do so.
  3. End-to-end encryption: Only the original sender and receiver can read the data. The platform being used to send the data only has the scrambled, unreadable version. So if courts or government agencies order the platform to hand over the data, there's nothing useful to hand over.

🧩 Metadata

Metadata is the contextual information surrounding your data. For example, the metadata for a phone call includes the number you called and the length of your call (but not the call’s contents). With enough metadata, attackers can piece together a relatively reliable picture of who you are, who you know, and where you’re going.

Unfortunately, legal protections around metadata tend to be weak or nonexistent.

🚶🏽 Level 1

Things to do

Identify important accounts

  • Imagine that an attacker gains access to all of your online accounts. Which of these accounts would be really painful to lose? List them out and write them down.
  • Typically this list includes accounts used for email, online banking, social media, and maybe one or two related to work.
  • The list should be short, and have less than 5-6 items.

Double-lock important accounts

The first lock is usually your account password. The second lock takes on a different form and/or comes via a different channel — most often as a code sent to your phone via an app or text message (SMS). This additional lock is usually called two-factor authentication (abbreviated as 2FA) or two-step verification.

  • Turn on two-factor authentication for the important accounts you just identified. To find instructions on how to do so:
    • Run an internet search for two-factor authentication and the account name
    • Look up the account provider on 2fa.directory
  • Use an authenticator app if one is available. They're more secure than using SMS to receive your 2FA code.
    • Recommended app: Authy.
  • Turn on cloud-backup for your authenticator app in case you ever lose your phone.
    • Instructions for: Authy.

Double-check backup security questions on important accounts

  • Make sure the answers to these questions are not easy to find out using public information about you. Security questions often get used to verify your identity during login or password resets, so they play a crucial role.

Secure your email

  • Check the address bar for https:// If you’re using a webmail service, check that you're logging into it using an https:// URL. If there isn't one available, find a new email provider.
  • Find out if your email service supports backup codes. Once you turn on 2FA, your email provider may provide single-use backup codes you can use if you lose your phone.

Secure your phone

  • Use a non-common/obvious unlock code for your phone with at least 9 digits. We recommend using a long string of numbers as it's easier to tap (but using both letters and numbers is okay too). Swipe patterns are not recommended, however, as they are too easy replicated by onlookers.
  • Set up a pin code for your mobile phone SIM card:
    • Instructions for:
    • If it asks you for a SIM pin code and you don't remember setting one, then the phone company/provider might have set one by default. Go to your phone provider’s website to find out what it is.
  • Don’t allow USB accessories to control a locked device:
    • iOS: Turn off Settings → Face ID & Passcode → Allow Access When Locked: USB Accessories.
    • Android: Setting is off by default and is only available if Developer Options are turned on.

Secure your computer

  • Turn on HTTPS-only mode (warns against unencrypted website traffic) on your desktop web browser(s):
  • Turn on your computer’s firewall:
    • macOS: System Preferences → Security & Privacy → Firewall.
    • Windows: Control Panel → System and Security → Windows Firewall.
  • Turn off your computer’s remote access:
    • macOS: System Preferences → Sharing → Remote Login, Remote Management.
    • Windows: Control Panel → System and Security → System: Allow remote access → Don’t Allow Remote connections to this computer.
  • Set up basic anti-virus software on your computer:

Other considerations

  • Turn off app-specific passwords that bypass two-factor authentication (where possible).
  • Turn off automatically added calendar invitations, which can be used to send malicious links.
    • Google Calendar Settings → Event Settings → Add invitations to my calendar: When I respond to the invitation in email
    • Outlook: File → Options → Calendar → Automatic accept or decline → Auto Accept/Decline: Automatically Accept Meeting Requests and Remove Canceled Meetings
  • Disable macros in Microsoft Office. Macros are small bits of code that automate actions which can be exploited by attackers. They can still be useful sometimes, which is why we recommend the Disable all macros with notification, which allows you to manually allow macros from trusted sources to run.

💪🏽 Habits to grow

Watch out for phishing scams

A phishing scam is an email or text message where an attacker is trying to trick you into giving your password or other login details. To defend yourself:

  • Trust your instincts. If you feel like something is off — whether it's the way the text is written, the way the graphics look, or an unusual, first-time request from a service provider — it probably is.
  • Check who it's from. Look over the sender's name and phone number or email address. If it's an email, be sure to closely read the bit after the @ symbol.
  • Think twice before clicking a link. When in doubt, carefully examine the domain in the link. To look at it without opening the link:
    • On mobile:
      • iOS: Tap and hold on a link. A mini preview of the destination will appear. On the top right of this mini-window, tap Hide preview. From then on, iOS will show the full URL whenever you tap and hold on a link.
      • Android: Tap and hold on a link.
    • On desktop:
      • Firefox, Chrome, Edge: When your mouse cursor hovers over a link or button, the full URL will show up on the bottom left.
      • macOS Safari: To turn on the above feature, go to View → Show Status Bar
      • macOS Mail: Hover your mouse cursor over a link and wait for a few seconds for a pop-up to appear.
  • After clicking links, scan the URL address bar in your web browser.
    • Is there a red warning icon or 'Not Secure' label? This means the website is running unencrypted on http (rather than https).
    • Is the domain spelled incorrectly?

Beware of file attachments

  • Don’t download/open unnecessary attachments.
    • When in doubt, reply to the original sender to ask what it is.
    • On email, preview attachments within the app or website. On Gmail and Protonmail, simply clicking the attachment brings up its preview, which runs in a safe environment inside the mail program.
    • Ask the sender to use a filesharing service (Dropbox, Google Drive, Tresorit), which also have their own online preview system.
  • Upload suspicious attachments to VirusTotal to have them analyze it. Keep in mind files submitted to VirusTotal may be shared with multiple security researchers, so don’t submit sensitive information.

Update all the things

  • Device operating systems: When you get a notification on your devices to update the operating system, do it as soon as possible.
  • Automatic updates: Turn on auto-update for your apps if the feature is available. If asked to update an app, do so as soon as possible.
  • Firmware updates: Check occasionally for firmware updates for your router and other internet-connected devices.

Other considerations

  • Wipe your devices properly before donating or giving them away. If you’ve encrypted your phones and computers (as suggested earlier), a standard factory reset will work for most use cases.
  • Don’t charge your phone at public charging stations/ports. They present a risk because attackers might steal your data. Instead, use a portable battery or bring our own adapter to plug directly into the power outlet.

👍 Great job! You've secured
👍 some important quick wins
👍 for your online safety & privacy.
👍 Please, do treat yourself to
👍 a cup of tea and a stretch.
👍 Now, ready for Level 2?

🏃🏻 Level 2

Things to do

Install a password manager

One common way attackers gain access to your account is if your password is too easy: it's too short, too obvious, or — if you use the same password on multiple accounts — already been leaked as a part of a data breach/hacking incident.

The best way to counteract this problem is to install and use a password manager, which helps you generate long passwords, store them, and fill them in automatically when you're logging into a website.

  • Recommended password managers:
  • Install the password manager app on both your phone and computer.
  • Install the password manager browser extension on your desktop web browser.
  • Only create passwords with more than 12 characters. We recommend using the option in the password manager that strings together random, unrelated words (e.g. plant-truck-nose-frame-lace) so that it's easy to type in those rare instances when the autofill isn't working.
  • Create login items/entries for your important accounts (identified in Level 1) and make sure each password is unique.
  • Next time you have to type in your password for another account, create an entry for it. This way, you will gradually get any frequently used accounts into the password manager.
  • Transfer all of your accounts later. Entering all of your accounts into the password manager will take a while, and is best saved for another day. (We've placed this time-consuming task in our Level 3.)
  • Don't use your password manager as a two-factor authentication app. It's better to not put all your eggs in one basket.

Encrypt your devices

Remember, encryption is only fully effective when the device is off!

  • Encrypt your computer hard drive.
  • Encrypt your phone storage.
    • iOS: Automatically encrypts.
    • Android: Almost all recent versions automatically encrypt. Double-check by going to Settings → Security → Encryption.
  • Encrypt your backup hard drives.

Make sure your home wifi router is set up right

  • Log into the administration and settings dashboard. It’s usually accessible by going to in your web browser. Otherwise, check your router’s instructions.
  • Update the dashboard login if the password is simple.
  • Review the devices currently connect to your network. You may have to explore until you find the access control. Make sure you know what every device on the list is.
  • Turn off the following options if you see them. (Look for them under advanced settings or gateway functions):
    • UPnP (Universal Plug and Play)
    • WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup)
    • Remote Management
Track your devices in case you lose them
  • Set up tracking or Find My, which will allow you to remotely find and wipe your devices by logging into a website if you ever lose them.
  • Instructions for:

Enhance your privacy

On social media & messaging apps
  • Review the privacy settings on social media platforms and messaging apps you frequently use. Check who can see your content, what information about you is being made public, and what you are sharing with third-party apps/advertisers.
  • Wherever possible, turn off read receipts for messaging apps. It may seem inconvenient at first, but in the long run you will have more privacy and freedom when people don't know if you've read their messages or not.
  • Here are links to and instructions for the most commonly-used platforms/apps:
    • Platforms/apps with privacy settings available through a desktop browser:
    • Platforms/apps with mobile-only access their full privacy settings:
      • Instagram: Settings → Privacy
      • WhatsApp: Settings → Account → Privacy
      • Snapchat: Settings → Privacy controls
      • TikTok: Profile → Settings and privacy → Privacy
      • Telegram: Settings → Privacy and Security
  • Limit how Facebook tracks you on other websites by clearing and disconnecting Off-Facebook activity.
On email & social media accounts
  • Review Third-Party Apps or Connected Apps linked to major social media/email platforms. These third-party/connected apps have access to your data, and they might be selling it.
  • Instructions for:
On your phone
  • Review which apps on your smartphone have access to your location data. Turn off access for the apps that don’t need it, and minimize the number of apps tracking your location.
    • iOS: Settings → Privacy → Location Services
    • Android: Settings → Location → App access to location
  • Turn off your unique advertising ID number so that advertisers can't pinpoint you as easily:
    • iOS: Settings → Privacy → Tracking → Allow Apps to Request to Track: Off
    • iOS: Settings → Privacy → Apple Advertising → Personalized Ads: Off
    • Android: Settings → Privacy → Ads → Delete advertising ID
  • On Android, turn off passive Wi-Fi and Bluetooth scanning.
    • Settings → Location → Wi-Fi and Bluetooth scanning
  • Delete third-party keyboards on your phone. They often share what you type with the software maker.
    • These keyboards are installed as apps on iOS and Android, so take the time to scan through all of your installed apps to find and delete them.
    • If you need to use a third-party keyboard, make sure it’s an open-source project that others have verified and does not share your data with third parties.
On your mobile/computer web browsers
  • Review your web browser's privacy settings
    • On your mobile:
      • iOS Safari: [iOS] Settings → Safari → Privacy & Security, turn on all of them except Block All Cookies
      • Android Chrome: [Chrome] Settings → Privacy and security, turn on Safe Browsing (either option), Always use secure connections, Do Not Track
      • Android Firefox: [Firefox] Settings → Privacy and security, turn on HTTPS-Only Mode, Enhanced Tracking Protection
    • On your computer:
      • macOS Safari: Preferences → Privacy, turn on Website tracking and Hide IP address
      • macOS/Windows Chrome: Preferences → Privacy and security → Cookies and other site data, turn on Block third-party cookies, Do not track
      • macOS/Windows Firefox: Preferences → Privacy & Security, turn on Enhanced Tracking Protection (any option), Do Not Track and HTTPS-Only Mode (scroll to the bottom)
  • Install these web browser extensions/add-ons if your browser supports it. Make sure they’re on even during private/incognito mode.
  • The above extensions/add-ons are available for Firefox (macOS, Windows, Android) and Chrome (macOS, Windows).
  • Review your other web browser extensions/add-ons. Delete any that you haven’t used in a while or don’t remember installing.
On other internet-connected devices
  • If you use smart speakers, turn off their recording function.
  • For an Amazon Ring or Echo, turn off the feature that shares your internet with strangers.
    • In the Alexa app: Settings → Account Settings → Amazon Sidewalk
  • For smart TVs, make sure to turn off the manufacturer's data tracking functionality, also known as automatic content recognition (ACR).
Other considerations

💪🏽 Habits to grow

Enhance your privacy

  • Post less personal information online. This includes information that can be used to identify/track/scam you (addresses, phone numbers, birthday, etc.).
  • Set up a separate account under a pen name to leave local business reviews (on Google Maps, Yelp, etc.) if you write many of them. Otherwise, reviews will be shown under your real name and possibly give away your home location.
  • When registering domains, make sure WHOIS/domain privacy is turned on. Many domain name registrars and webhosts offer this feature for free. Note: There are unofficial WHOIS lookup/history tools out there that make it hard to remove your information from the history log once you’ve entered it at an earlier point in time.

Watch what you say in online groups

Don’t say anything you’d regret on in a “private” group on Slack, Discord, Facebook, WhatsApp group chat, Telegram channel, or any “private” online forum. Here’s why:

  1. Any member can leak all of the data.
  2. Administrators usually have access to everything within the group, including deleted messages and private direct messages between two people.
  3. What you say can be traced back to your account's phone number or email. Even if you're not using your real name or photo.
    • To prevent this in Telegram, go into Settings → Privacy and Security → Phone Number, and then set:
      • Who can see my phone number to Nobody.
      • Who can find me by my number to My Contacts.

Other considerations

  • When downloading a new mobile app, double-check to confirm it’s the right one. Many fake apps trick people by using a slightly modified name or icon of an existing, popular app.
  • Regularly check the installed apps on your phone. Delete the ones you’re no longer using.
  • Need to send someone a password? Split it in half and send it via two different channels. For example, send half of the password through email and the other half via a voice call.
  • Don’t use Google/Twitter/Facebook to sign up or log into other services, which gives these platforms unnecessary data about you. Each service should have its account, and it should be easy to do this with a password manager.

🎉 Congratulations! You dove
🎉 fearlessly into your settings,
🎉 clicking, tapping, swiping,
🎉 which makes you a very, very
🎉 above average human being.
🎉 Now, you deserve a day off.
🎉 When you come back,
🎉 be prepared to join
🎉 the upper ranks of safety
🎉 as you enter Level 3.

🧗🏿 Level 3

Things to do

Put an extra lock on sensitive files

  • Identify files you don’t want others to access. This may include private photos, passport scans, and financial documents.
  • Create an encrypted, password-protected vault for your files.
  • Set up this vault on your computer and your phone.
  • Move your files into the secure vault. Make sure copies aren’t hanging around in an old folder or on your phone.

Upgrade your gear 💰

  • Buy a privacy screen for your laptop and phone. These stick-on sheets prevent onlookers from seeing what's on your screen. Examples for:
  • Place a sticker (or webcam cover) over your laptop’s front-facing camera.
    • If you buy a webcam cover for a laptop, make sure it is less than 0.1mm thick so that it doesn't affect how the laptop closes.
  • Don't use devices your workplace gives you for personal things. Either have separate devices for your work and personal lives, or, if it's too troublesome to have multiple devices, use your personal device for everything. Devices set up by workplaces often have monitoring systems that can turn malevolent during disputes.
  • Buy a mobile phone that always gets the latest software updates. Recommended phones:
    • Apple iPhone
    • Google Pixel Android
  • Use a paid VPN service both when you're on a public network (library or café) and when you're at home (to decrease data shared with your internet/phone company).
    • Avoid free VPN services because free services often make their money back by selling your data.
    • Recommended VPNs: Mullvad, TunnelBear

Use end-to-end encrypted apps

For secure messaging & calls
  • Use apps with open source end-to-end encryption protocols and easy-to-use disappearing message timers.
    • Recommended apps:
      • Signal: Sign up with a phone number.
      • Wire: Sign up with an email address or phone number.
    • Set messages to disappear after 1 or 4 weeks.
      • Signal: Go to Settings → Privacy → Disappearing Messages → Default Timer for New Chats.
      • Wire: No app-wide setting exists. You have to set it up for each conversation by tapping/clicking the timer icon ⏱.
    • These apps also end-to-end encrypt video and voice calls, so continue using them wherever possible.
  • End-to-end encryption for video/voice calls with more than 5 people may not be worth it. There are several reasons:
    • Privacy is hard to maintain in large group calls as they often become quasi-public events due to the large number of participants.
    • End-to-end encrypted video/voice requires more bandwidth than usual, and there's a large chance one or more people on the call won't be able to connect properly.
For online file-sharing and backup
  • Store files on the cloud using end-to-end encryption.
    • Recommended app: Tresorit 💰
    • Remember: files stored on Dropbox, Google Drive and iCloud are not end-to-end encrypted.

Further secure your messaging apps

Be aware of what other people can see in a group chat

Messaging apps use either your phone number or a username as the unique identifier (which other people use to add you on the platform). As such, your phone number or username is then visible to anyone you're in a group chat with, along with the name and photo in your profile.

Here's a breakdown of what unique identifiers are used for some popular messaging apps that offer some form of end-to-end encryption:

  • Signal: phone number
  • Wire: username (no one else can see the email or phone number you used to register your account)
  • Telegram: phone number by default but you can set up a username and then stop sharing your phone number:
    • Settings → Username
    • Settings → Privacy and Security → Phone Number → Who can see my phone number: Nobody
  • WhatsApp: phone number

If you don't want to give out your personal phone number, consider getting a virtual phone number from one of the providers listed in our scenario for Masking your identity for online dating, events, or organizing.

Use app-specific safety & privacy features
  • Turn on the extra layer of pin code protection and prevent others from logging in with your phone number.
    • Settings → Account → Signal PIN
    • Settings → Account → Registration Lock: On
  • Turn on two-step verification to prevent someone from moving your account without your permission.
    • Settings → Privacy and Security → Two-Step Verification
  • Start conversations by using New Secret Chat so that they are end-to-end encrypted. All other conversations and groups are not. Unfortunately, that this means your messages will not show up in your desktop or web app.
  • Turn on security notifications on WhatsApp to get a notification when a person you're talking to switches to a new device.
    • Settings → Account → Security → Show Security Notifications on This Phone: On
  • Turn on two-step verification to prevent someone from moving your account without your permission:
    • Settings → Account → Two-Step Verification: Enable
  • If you backup chats, make sure they are end-to-end encrypted, or turn backup off altogether.
    • Settings → Chats → Chat Backup → End-to-end Encrypted Backup
    • For iOS users who use iCloud Backup (not end-to-end encrypted) to backup their entire phone, make sure WhatsApp is not included as part of the process. This iCloud Backup should not be confused with WhatsApp's interal backup feature that also uses iCloud.
      • [iOS] Settings → Your name → iCloud → Manage Storage → Backups → device → WhatsApp: Off

Fully utilize your password manager

  • Store login credentials for all online accounts in a password manager. We previously asked you to store passwords for your most important accounts on there. Now, it's time to transfer everything onto there.
    • The fastest way to enter the details is to logout and login to each account on your computer, and let the password manager's browser extension/add-on capture the details automatically.
    • In some cases, the password manager may warn you that the password you have is weak. If so, spend that extra minute on the account website to change to a new password.
  • Use your password manager’s feature that checks your passwords for weaknesses. If available, this scans your stored passwords to see if it's too short, has been reused, or has already been leaked as part of a data breach.
    • Feature name in:
      • 1Password: Watchtower 💰
      • Bitwarden: Vault Health Report 💰

😲 Wow, you really did it.
😲 You finished all 3 levels!
😲 You deserve a reward —
😲 a cookie, perhaps,
😲 but not the tracking type.
😲 Rest for the rest of the week
😲 and when you're well rested,
😲 come back and check out
😲 the scenarios below.

🤹🏻 Scenarios

👤 Masking your identity for online dating, events, or organizing

Don't use your full name

  • Consider using a nickname or just your first name. This is especially important if your full name is very unique, which makes it very easy to search for online.
  • Consider using a persistent pseudonym or collective identity, especially if you’re a public figure. For more information on how and why, see:

Get a secondary phone number

For messaging apps using phone numbers as the primary identifier or username (e.g., Signal, WhatsApp, Telegram), get a secondary number from:

  • Paid online services 💰 (more reliable)
    • Hushed:: Offers US, Canada, and UK numbers
    • Burner:: Offers US and Canada numbers
    • Skype:: Offers numbers from many countries
  • Free online services 🆓
    • TextNow:: Offers ad-supported US and Canada numbers
    • Google Voice:: Offers a free US number, but is only available in the US
  • Your local phone companies 💰
    • Get a prepaid or cheap SIM card plan

Note: If you lose/unsubscribe to your secondary phone number, other people can buy it and impersonate you.

Get an email alias

For sites and services that use email as the primary identifier/username, get a new 🆓 email account or an email alias that forwards to your main account from:

Buy things online anonymously

  • Sign up for a privacy-focused virtual credit card 💰 (only available in the US). Both of these services a) mask who you are to the seller, and b) mask what you've bought from the bank.

Create an untraceable online alias

Even with all the third-party services above, courts can still compel companies to hand over information about you. So if you are really in a high-risk situation, you may need to do all of the above and more. For one example of this, see Matt Mitchell's PRIVACY RECIPE: Creating an online persona.

✊🏾 Attending a protest

When it comes to attending a protest, there are many, many considerations depending on where you are and who you are. In this guide, we are only going to make recommendations related to uses of technology.

Things to do before you go

Keep communications private
  • Use an end-to-end encrypted messaging app and make sure disappearing messages is turned on. See the encrypted messaging app part of Level 3 above.
  • Double-check the privacy settings in your messaging apps.
  • Turn off message previews in your notifications.
    • iOS: Settings → Notifications → Show Previews: When Unlocked.
    • Android: Settings → Apps & notifications → Notifications → Notifications on lock screen → Sensitive notifications: Off.
Minimize location tracking on your phone
  • Turn off location history:
    • iOS: Settings → Privacy → Location Services → System Services → Significant Locations.
    • Android: Settings → Privacy → Advanced → Google Location History → Activity Controls: Location History.
    • Google Maps: Settings → Maps history → Web & App Activity.
  • Delete past location history:
    • iOS: Settings → Privacy → Location Services → System Services → Significant Locations → Clear History.
    • Android: See instructions.
    • Google Maps: See instructions.
  • Consider turning off all location services temporarily:
    • iPhone: Settings → Privacy → Location Services → Location Services: Off.
    • Android: Settings → Location → Use location: Off.
Other considerations
  • Draft a message to a trusted friend before or legal hotline. Prepare to hit send if arrested at the protest or if there’s an emergency.
  • As a backup, write down the phone number of the trusted friend/hotline on your arm with a permanent marker.
  • Charge your phone fully and bring a spare battery.
  • Clean out any sensitive personal information on your phone. Delete any photos, chat logs, and notes that can be used against you.
  • If you use your fingerprint or face to unlock your phone, turn it off before the protest. In some jurisdictions, officers can compel you to provide your fingerprint but not your passcode.
  • Dress up to not stand out. Wear plain clothes that don't attract attention, cover up visible tattoos, and put on a face mask. Make it harder to be easily identified from a photo and by facial recognition technology.
Get a burner phone only if you really need it
  • A burner phone is a single-use, disposable phone and SIM card that you buy with cash. Ideally, it makes you anonymous to the phone company and online services, and not reveal information about you if someone takes or steals your phone.
  • Burner phones require extra time and money to set up. For example, see Micah Lee's guide on setting one up in the US.
  • Decide what you want to use a burner phone for, and what that use might reveal about you. Every action you perform with your phone creates a clue about who you are. E.g. if you activate it at home, it will give away your home address.
  • Do you need a burner phone and SIM card or do you just need a burner virtual phone number? For the latter, see the scenario above: Masking your identity for online dating, events, or organizing.

Remember when you're out

  • Power off your phone if there's risk of an imminent arrest or phone seizure. Encryption works best when devices are off.
  • Try not to take photos or videos where people’s faces are visible. Taking a photo of people’s backs is okay. The one exception is if you’re filming a video of a conflict or arrest where documentation is critical.
  • If there are faces captured in a photo/video, make sure to blur them before sharing them online.
  • For further anonymity, erase the location metadata before sharing a photo/video.
    • Recommended tools:

🩸 Accessing reproductive health services privately

Getting the care you need can be a controversial and fraught endeavor in many parts of the world. Here are some recommendations that may apply if you live in one of those places.

Researching and talking to friends

  • Follow the privacy-enhancing recommendations in Level 2.
  • Use a VPN to minimize what your internet provider can see.
  • Open a new private window on your web browser to minimize tracking and makes sure your browsing history isn't saved. Alternately, use a different browser in private mode only for health research to further compartmentalize data.
  • Think twice before sharing information, and when you do, use an end-to-end encrypted messaging app with disappearing messages on. (Avoid email if possible.)

Tracking your period

  • Use an app that stores your data locally, or use pen and paper.
    • Recommended app: Euki
    • iOS: If you use iCloud Backup, turn it off for this app:
      • Settings → Your name→ iCloud → Manage Storage → Backups →Your device → Euki: Off

Interacting with a clinic

  • Consider using a nickname.
  • Use a secondary phone number. Either buy a SIM card with cash or get a virtual number (run by a company in a place that favors reproductive rights).
    • For our list of virtual number services, see the scenario above: Masking your identity for online dating, events, or organizing.
  • Use an end-to-end encrypted email address. Consider setting up a new one just for this purpose.
  • Hide your transactions by paying with:
    • Cash
    • A prepaid credit card you bought with cash
    • A virtual credit card with privacy features (only available in the US). Recommended services:

Traveling to a clinic

  • If you are physically going to a clinic and think it will be a risky situation, follow the recommendations in the above scenario: Attending a protest.
  • Do not bring your phone with you to the clinic. At the least, leave the phone at home or at the hotel during this last part of the journey.

Further advice for people in the US

🛫 Crossing an international border

  • Turn off your devices.
    • Storage/hard drives are only encrypted when off, not when they’re just in sleep mode.
    • This will also ensure that your mobile devices can only be unlocked using a pin code, which is protected by freedom of speech laws in some jurisdictions.
  • Backup before you depart and keep a copy at home in case your devices are lost in transit.
  • Store less information on your devices. They can’t take what you don’t have if your devices are seized.
  • Be mindful of what stickers you put on your devices. A border agent could mistake them for something suspicious.
  • Decide beforehand what you will do if you are asked to unlock your devices. Searches sometimes happen as a routine part of border crossing.
  • Notify your people about your flight number and arrival time. Regularly check in with one of them at points in your journey. Have them contact a lawyer/relevant organization if you do not show up.

For extreme situations

Note: Some of these practices might raise suspicions and backfire.

  • Create an alternate universe version of yourself... digitally. Create photo albums, email addresses, and social media accounts full of vanilla content.
  • “Forget” half of your password. Password lock your device/account so that only a trusted friend has the second half of the password.
  • Log out of all important accounts. Or leave your devices at home.
  • For travel to the US, consider filing for attorney privileges. See BoingBoing’s note about filing for attorney privileges at the U.S. border.

🤐 Traveling to a place with weak data privacy laws or internet censorship

  • Be aware that phone companies might share your location and personal info with others without your permission.
  • Setup a VPN beforehand to:
    • Access services uninterrupted.
    • Minimize the amount of data collected about you.
    • Recommended apps: Mullvad, TunnelBear
  • Download these offline apps in case there are connectivity issues:
    • An offline messaging app to send text messages to people nearby if the internet goes down by using Bluetooth.
    • An offline maps app
  • Consider traveling with a burner phone while leaving your laptop at home. This will be especially useful if you need to install new/untested software for work that might violate data privacy policies.
  • Re-evaluate which online platforms are safe to use.

💻 Hosting a public event online

  • Don’t say anything you wouldn’t say in public. Encourage your attendees to do the same. Most commercial platforms have access to your audio/video data and mine your metadata to create consumer profiles.
  • Limit the amount of control an audience member has.
    • For example, for most Zoom events, it's not necessary for everyone to have screensharing access.
  • Don't make the meeting link too public. Either set a meeting password or set up an RSVP system so that you don’t have to give out the meeting link and password publicly.
  • Create a user/content moderation plan.
    • If you have co-hosts or moderators, make sure they are set up in the online system as administrators/editors/moderators.
    • Familiarize yourselves with what filtering/muting/blocking powers you have as a host/moderator.
    • Create an emergency plan of action around what you would do if a malicious troll enters your event.

🥴 Online harassment & doxxing

Harassment and doxxing tend to be very specific situations, which vary drastically depending on who you are, what you do, who the attacker is, etc.

While we have some general recommendations below, we suggest seeking additional information from someone in your community and from an online resource/guide that hews closer to your exact situation.

Build support systems

Recruit a trusted friend

Do not force yourself into a corner by going at this alone!

  • Baseline: Ask a trusted friend to hold space for you and your situation. They can be your sounding board while helping you analyze how grave the threat is.
  • Preferred: Ask a trusted friend to accompany you as you investigate, record, report and block harassers.
  • For serious situations: Hand your phone/accounts over to a trusted friend and ask them to summarize incoming messages and updates. Decreasing your exposure will decrease your stress.
  • Bonus: Have the trusted friend start a group chat with you, them, and 2-3 additional people explicitly for your situation. This way, support work is distributed among multiple people.

We recommend either going through the recommendations below with your trusted friend or handing the recommendations over to them.

Connect with communities

Research and monitor the situation

Search for public information about yourself (dox yourself)
  • Search for your name, nicknames, usernames, and address on Google, Bing, and other popular search engines. Try adding filetype:pdf to your search query to catch any CVs or documents you might have missed.
  • Run an image search on your most-used profile pictures on the same search engines.
  • Search for your name, nicknames, and usernames on any social media platforms you regularly use. Check social media platforms that are popular where you’re located, too.
  • Want to do a more thorough search? See Access Now Digital Security Helpline’s Self-Doxing Guide.
Monitor updates and collect evidence
  • Monitor your name and username. Add them as search keywords in the following tools:
  • Monitor and archive webpages that mention you. Recommended tool:
  • Log (date, time, description, screenshot, URL) incidents in whatever program/app is most accessible for you. If there’s a lot of phone-only content, use the Hunchly mobile app.
  • If future legal action is likely, pay Page Vault to capture a snapshot of a website. Ask a lawyer to file an evidence preservation request with the relevant online platform.

Decide on a course of action

Ways to deal with your harasser(s)

The following choices are not mutually exclusive, and the best choice may change over time as the situation evolves:

  • Ignore: Sometimes, harassers will become bored and walk away if they don’t get attention.
  • De-escalate: In some contexts, you can defuse the situation with some calm words before it worsens.
  • Mute on social media: This lets you have peace of mind and not have your harasser’s updates suddenly pop up on social media. (You might still want to check what they’re saying proactively.)
  • Block on social media: Sends a strong signal to your harasser. They won’t be able to see your posts or message you. They will, however, notice that you blocked them and might interpret it as a sign of escalation.
  • Go public: Sometimes, shaming a harasser publicly or rallying people to your support will make them disappear. However, this has a high risk of escalating the situation and drawing more attention to it.
  • Report: Report the harasser to the relevant online platform to have their account frozen or deleted. You may also report the incident to your local law enforcement if it makes sense.
If you decide to report
  • If harassment is happening on a social media platform: File a report with a social media company and ask at least 10 friends to do the same. Have 1–2 people file a copyright infringement claim if it makes sense.
  • If there’s harassment material on a website: File a report with the website’s web hosting service and domain registrar. You might be able to find out who these companies are by performing a WHOIS lookup on the website domain.
  • If you contact law enforcement:
    • Beware that not all officers are used to dealing with online harassment threats.
    • If you believe you might become a target of swatting (where people prank call the cops on you), let them know ahead of time. Send them an article about swatting if it’s a new idea to them.
Delete online information about you

In most cases, you will be safer if you review and remove some of the public information that's out there online about. See the scenario below titled: Remove information about you off of the internet.

Notify other parties

In parallel to monitoring the situation and dealing with your harasser(s), it may be important to:

  • Tell your close contacts, family, and employer what’s going on. Get ahead of the situation by making talking points together so that they know how to respond if internet strangers or the press contacts them.
  • If the situation escalates, find and notify someone in your community nearby with crisis experience for protection and support.

Bonus: helpful social media platform tools and features


Facebook has a few features to control your interactions, but ultimately relies on you setting limits on who can see and comment on your posts and profile.

  • Ignore Messages within Facebook Messenger to move the current and future messages to the Message Requests section
  • Privacy Checkup within Facebook includes a section on Who can see what you share that walks you the visibiity of your profile and posts.

Instagram has a set of nuanced features within its mobile app to filter and fine-tune social interactions on its platform.

  • Restrict an account, which means the other person can’t see when you’re online, whether you’ve read their messages, and hides their comments.
  • Hide your stories from a specific account.
  • Hidden Words filters out messages and comments with words that Instagram deems offensive. You can also set up a custom words list.
  • Limit comments and messages from recent followers and accounts that aren’t following you.

Twitter works with some pretty handy third-party tools and has a few features of its own.

  • Filter unwanted mentions and replies and/or archive them to process later with the help of a friend using Block Party.
  • Block previously-identified offenders using Block Together. Ask around in your communities for shared block lists.
  • Block troll bots using Bot Sentinel.
  • Reduce dogpiling by using Red Block. Red Block blocks all followers of a specific profile.
  • See what lists you’ve been added to by going to Profile → Lists → ··· → Lists you’re on. If you see a suspicious list or list owner, tap the three dots on the top right to report the list and leave the list by blocking the creator.
  • Control who can reply to your tweets by tapping Everyone can reply and restricting it to People you follow or Only people you mention.

Discord is centered around separate communities/servers, which affects the way blocking works.

  • When you block someone:
    • They are unable to direct message you, call you, or tag you in a post.
    • Their messages to you disappear.
    • Messages that they write on shared channels are hidden. But messages that you write on shared channels are still visible to them.
    • They appear offline to you at all times, but they can still see your online/offline status.
  • Privacy settings allow you to adjust whether community/server members can direct message you, and who's allowed to send you friend requests.
Choosing between muting or blocking an account
  • Some platforms tell the other person you've blocked them, while others hide the action completely. Read this Consumer Reports guide for details on what blocking looks like to the other party.

Show yourself some kindness

  • Don’t worry if you’re not able to keep up with your regular workday routine.
  • Call in friends to help share a meal, take a break, or watch your pet(s) for a few days.
  • Do your best to eat and shower regularly.
  • Engage in movement, no matter how small. That could be a walk or even stretching. Pick something you enjoy, and that eases your mind.
  • Prepare a box of comforts beforehand. Include things you like to see, touch, taste, and listen to.
  • If the incident is traumatizing, refer to it using a nickname.
  • Remember, it is not your fault. Online harassment is never justified and is ignited for the most random reasons.

Bonus tips for journalists and researchers

  • Make yourself a more challenging target. Consider making your social media accounts private (or temporarily deleting them) for 48 hours surrounding a major, new release.
  • Don’t make more noise about yourself. Don’t livetweet your situation, don’t quit your job suddenly, and don’t talk to media outlets who will twist your words.
    • If necessary, prepare a formal written statement or reply with the help of people who have experience dealing with the media.
  • If the noise doesn’t stop, flood the airwaves with positive stories about yourself. Ask people within your professional community to write positive articles or social media posts about you and your work.
  • Remember, you did nothing wrong. Ignorant employers or colleagues may not be supportive and start seeing you as a liability — they’re wrong.
  • Read Lyz Lenz’s conversation with Talia Lavin about their experiences.
  • Send these resources to your newsroom:

Check out these additional resources

👀 Remove information about you off of the internet

If you’re about to become a public figure or are experiencing harassment, consider the suggestions below.

Clean up your social media presences

You might not need to delete your entire account, but consider deleting (or making private) old posts or posts that reveal too much about where you live, where you go, and who you’re with.

  • See what your public profile looks like, and remove/restrict things as you see fit.
    • Desktop: go to your profile and click the 👁 button next to the right of the Edit Profile button.
    • Mobile: go to your profile, tap the three dots on the right of Add Story and tap View As.
  • Make it so only friends can see your past posts.
    • Desktop: Go to Settings → Privacy → Limit Past Posts.
    • Mobile: Go to Settings & Privacy → Settings → Privacy Settings → Limit who can see past posts.
  • Consider bulk deleting past posts. To delete multiple posts at once:
    • Settings and privacy → Activity log → Your Posts and then select to Archive or Trash
  • Swipe to delete individual conversations.
  • Delete chat content but keep the chat groups:
    • Settings → Chats → Clear All Chats.
  • Delete all chats, including the chat groups:
    • Settings → Chats → Delete All Chats.
  • Turn off chat backups on WhatsApp:
    • Settings → Chats → Chat backup.
  • Delete your previous backups. Instructions for:
  • Look through your profile and manually delete posts. Tap the three dots in the upper-right corner of a photo.
  • If you need to bulk-delete posts:
    • Your activity → Photos and videos → Posts, Reels or Videos → Select and then choose either Archive or Delete
Reddit and other forums
  • There’s often no easy solution. Sometimes you have to delete your entire account.
  • In the case of Reddit, you have to use third-party scripts because deleting your account still leaves your posts up.

Delete your social media accounts...temporarily

Many social media companies let you restore your deleted account after a specific period. This can be useful if you want to hide for a while and wait for an event to pass.

  • Facebook Read instructions to deactivate or delete your account temporarily. You have 30 days after deactivation to reverse it.
  • Instagram Read instructions to disable your account temporarily, but deleting it seems permanent.
  • Twitter Read instructions to deactivate your account. It will be permanently deleted if you don’t log in after 30 days.
  • Snapchat Read instructions to delete your account. It will be permanently deleted if you don’t log in after 30 days.

Remove your information from other people’s accounts or websites

Remember: Information removal requests takes time to process and often require repeated attempts.

Remove articles and press about you online

Note: The larger the publication, the harder it is to persuade them.

  • Think of this as risk reduction, not total elimination. It will be impossible to have everything removed.
  • Contact the editor or your previous contact. Explain your situation honestly and hope for a sympathetic editor/writer.
    • If you think the editor/writer will not respond well, it may be better not to reach out—doing so may draw more attention to your situation.
  • For older articles, it may help to remind them that the article is still easily accessible on search engines.

Obscure your personal information

  • See the scenario: Masking your identity for online dating, events, or organizing.
  • Get a P.O. box at a post office or use Traveling Mailbox (U.S. only) to hide your home address.
  • Delete old accounts to eliminate traces of personal information on the internet. Use the JustDeleteMe directory to accelerate this process.

💔 Dealing with stalkerware/spyware

When someone close to you (usually a romantic partner) spies on you using a hidden app on your mobile device, that person is using stalkerware.

If you’re not sure and things haven’t escalated between you and your partner

  • Keep a hidden, pen-and-paper log of suspicious incidents.
  • Make sure your partner is not getting information from previously shared accounts. Did you share your calendar with them? Do you have any joint online accounts?
  • Check to see if you set up location share on an app. Instructions for:
  • Review and redo the items in Levels 1–3 of this guide. Make sure to:
    • Look for other active, logged in sessions on your accounts.
    • Reset your passwords for important accounts.
    • Check your privacy settings.
    • Look up any apps you don’t recognize on your computer and phone.
  • Keep an eye out for other signs. Examples include:
    • Your phone battery suddenly drains much faster than before.
    • Your computer internet connection is slower than usual.
    • You get emails/prompts about someone else logging into an account.
    • Your partner suddenly asks to borrow your phone.
  • Check to see if someone is using a tracking tile/tag to follow you. Luckily, the two most popular tracking tile/tags have anti-stalking features.
  • Don’t delete suspicious apps immediately. You may need to keep them as evidence. Plus, deletion may also cause the situation with your partner to escalate.

If you’re pretty sure they’re spying on you and you’re scared

Don’t go through this alone — seek help:

  • Reach out to a trusted friend (through a public phone/line). Ask them to hold space for you and your situation. They can be your sounding board while helping you analyze how grave the threat is.
  • Connect with one of the many organizations who specialize in stalkerware and domestic abuse (through a public/friend's phone/line). Some of them help you collect evidence and remove stalkerware safely.
  • Keep digital and printed records of relevant texts, emails, calls, etc.
  • When you no longer need evidence, remove the suspicious apps/stalkerware yourself by performing a factory reset on your computer/phone. Buying a brand new device is even safer, of course.
    • Remember to reinstall apps and import data manually, lest you restore a backup with stalkerware in it.

Additional resources

📰 Researching and writing about sensitive topics

Below are some general recommendations that all journalists and researchers should consider, especially for those working with (human) sources. If you have access to experts and training sessions through your workplace or professional communities, we highly recommend you taking advantage of that.

Be prepared

  • To remotely wipe the contents of your devices. See scenario below titled: Somebody took my phone/computer!
  • To be on the receiving end of an email phishing campaign (as journalist emails are usually more public than others).

Protect your sources

Protect yourself

  • Use a secondary phone number on messaging apps to talk to your sources.
  • Create a public tip line using your secondary phone number. Follow Yael Grauer’s guide: How To Use Signal Without Giving Out Your Phone Number Using a Chromebook and an Old Phone.
  • If you're traveling, review the scenario titled Crossing an international border.
  • If you’re covering a protest, review the scenario titled Attending a protest and decide which parts apply to you (if you have special journalist rights/protections where you’re working).
  • If you're doing research on social media, do so under a separate account that uses an alias (not your real name). Set up this account using a disposable email address. (Not all newsrooms/employers allow this, but push the allowed boundaries as much as possible.)
  • Use a VPN if you’re browsing the internet at the office. For example, website administrators can see that you’re visiting from the New York Times network.

Protect your data

Note: Courts can compel companies like Google to hand over all of your data.

  • Use an email and storage provider not owned by an organization you’re reporting on.
  • Move all of your work onto end-to-end encrypted platforms.
  • Store sensitive data in a password-protected cloud or external storage device as much as possible. Read the relevant recommendations in our Level 3 section above.
  • Permanently erase sensitive files from your computer. Recommended apps:

😭 Missing or lost device

  • Look for, lock or wipe your device remotely. Instructions for:
  • Log out of all important accounts by logging into them from another device, and then logging out all other active sessions.
  • To prevent misuse, get a new SIM card and cancel your old one. Make sure to do this only after you've tried calling your phone to reach whoever has picked it up.
  • If you get your device back, reset it back to its factory settings and restore it from your last backup.
  • If the authorities seize your device at an international border crossing, ask for a seizure receipt (available in some jurisdictions, such as Canada).

👾 Figuring out if your device has been hacked

  • Log in to your important accounts and look for any suspicious logged in sessions. Instructions for:
  • Use the device's built-in tools to look for irregular patterns.
    • On your computer, look for any processes that are using a lot of your CPU, or have names that you don't recognize (look them up to be sure). Use these tools:
      • macOS: Activity Monitor
      • Windows: Process Explorer to look at what processes/applications are running. Google any suspicious names.
    • On your phone, look for apps that are using an abnormally large amount of battery or data. Use these tools:
      • iOS: Settings → Battery → Battery usage by app
      • iOS: Settings → Cellular → Cellular data
      • Android: Settings → Battery → Battery usage
      • Android: Settings → Network and interent → SIMs → App data usage
      • Android: Settings → Network and interent → Internet → Non-operator data usage
  • Download third-party apps to help you analyze the data streams going in and out of your device:
  • Set up a spare phone as a room monitor to detect unwanted physical intrusion. Example apps:

😣 Seeking help in an emergency

Hotlines and helplines

Services for civil society workers
Regional services
Services to counteract online harassment
Other services to consider

If someone else has taken control of your accounts

If you’ve been a victim of an online scam, fraud or ransomware

🎁 Bonus

This section contains additional tips and tools that we encountered during our research. Many of the recommendations below are popular with members of the cybersecurity community, but we found them to be a little too hard to follow, a little too new/untested or a little too specific for a small group of people.

Cool tools for maximum safety

Cool tools that cost money

Cool tools with steep learning curves

  • Switch to an open source, security-focused app store by using F-Droid (Android only).
  • Use a decentralized, private messaging app powered by the Tor network. Check out Ricohet Refresh.
  • Use a more secure operating system for your computer. Options include:
  • Use a more secure operating system for your phone. Options include:
  • Start using more secure devices. Options include:

Hosting/running a website

Other bonus items

  • Want a new messaging app? Check this table of secure messaging apps (Secure Messaging Apps Comparison to learn more about security considerations beyond end-to-end encryption and what trade-offs you may be OK with.
  • Sign up to be notified by Have I Been Pwned when an account tied to your email is compromised.
  • Access Facebook with more anonymity and bypass internet filtering by using its onion service.
  • Freeze your credit (USA only) to prevent bad actors from accessing or mis-using your personal information. See IntelTechniques’ Credit Freeze Guide for details.

🏆 Oh my, you have arrived.
🏆 This is the end.
🏆 Thank you for reading.
🏆 Thank you for being thorough.
🏆 You are a true champ.

🧠 Other resources

We consulted many sources and drew upon our experiences in creating this guide. If you’re not finding quite what you want here, we recommend checking out the following resources:

📝 License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

👋🏾 Special thanks

Special thanks to the CryptoHarlem community, the students at the School of Journalism and Communication at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and our GitHub contributors.